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Is multiple sclerosis hereditary disease

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The presence of lesions on the brain and spinal cord is indicative of multiple sclerosis, a condition where nerve cell damage and degradation to the myelin sheath occur. Multiple sclerosis falls under the category of autoimmune disorders as it arises from aberrant immune system activity targeting nervous tissue within one's own body.

Although MS is not a hereditary illness that gets transferred across generations, individuals have the possibility of inheriting genetic susceptibility. Hence, unlike traits such as black hair or dimples that are inherited in a straightforward manner; MS does not follow this pattern genetically.

While the exact cause of multiple sclerosis is uncertain, numerous genes are believed to play a role in determining its risk. The most significant genetic factors linked with an increased likelihood for developing this disease are alterations within the HLA-DRB1 gene. Besides these variations, other contributors that elevate a person's chances of contracting MS encompass changes inside the IL7R gene and environmental triggers such as exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, insufficient vitamin D levels or smoking habits.

The family of genes known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex contains the HLA-DRB1 gene. Its purpose is to aid in distinguishing proteins created by foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria from those generated within the body's confines. Regular variations exist among each HLA gene enabling a person’s immune system to respond effectively against an extensive variety of external proteins. While changes in numerous HLA genes are connected with heightened vulnerability towards multiple sclerosis, one specific variant -HLD-DRB1*15:01 – has been identified as being most strongly associated with genetic risk factors for this disease.

Instructions for creating two receptor proteins, interleukin 7 (IL-7) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), are provided by TheIL7R gene. These receptors exist within the cell membrane of immune cells and encourage signaling pathways which promote the proliferation and survival of these same immune cells. In multiple sclerosis, a genetic variation results in an IL-7 receptor that is located inside the cell rather than in its membrane; it remains unclear if this change affects TSLP reception as well.

The involvement of the HLA-DRB1and IL-7R genes in the immune system suggests a possible connection between alterations within them and autoimmune responses that harm nerve cells and myelin sheath, ultimately causing multiple sclerosis symptoms. Nevertheless, their precise contribution to this condition's progression remains uncertain at present.

Follow the link of the selected polymorphism to read a brief description of how the selected polymorphism affects Multiple sclerosis and see a list of existing studies.

SNP polymorphisms related to the topic Multiple sclerosis:

rs7923837Variations in the HHEX gene are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, affects acute glucose-stimulated insulin release.
rs6897932Variation in the IL7RA gene accounts for susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes.
rs3135388Variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene is significantly associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (3-6 fold increase in risk).
rs4728142Validation of IRF5 as a multiple sclerosis risk gene: putative role in human herpes virus-6 infection.
rs2858331Together with the rs4988889 gene breakage, it is a diagnostic criterion for celiac disease.
rs10492972The polymorphic locus rs10492972 of the KIF1B gene is associated with multiple sclerosis.
rs8702The melastatin genetic variant plays a central role in magnesium homeostasis, which is critical for maintaining glucose and insulin metabolism.
rs3135391The major histocompatibility class I locus contributes to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (3-6 times higher risk).
rs12722489The IL2RA and IL7RA genes account for predisposition to multiple sclerosis.
rs2300747The CD58 genetic variant is associated with risk of multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
rs1321172Slightly higher (1.08 times) risk of multiple sclerosis.
rs1800693Slight (1.4-fold) increase in risk of multiple sclerosis
rs926103SH2D2A gene breakage may contribute to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
rs630923Serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 associated with multiple sclerosis.
rs12708716Polymorphisms influence the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
rs6604026Polymorphisms associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis do not affect measures of disease severity.
rs9282860Liver B1 kinase kinase polymorphism increases 2-fold risk of multiple sclerosis.
rs1077667LIGHT genetic variation is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
rs10984447Increased risk up to 1.4 times of multiple sclerosis disease.
rs2069763Increased risk of autoimmune diseases - systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, celiac disease, and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after transplantation.
rs9271366HLA-DPB1 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
rs7775228HLA DQ2.2 genes play an important role in many autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and others.
rs17445836Genetic variation in the IRF8 region is associated with Behcet's disease, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
rs2104286Genetic heterogeneity of IL2RA indicates susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
rs4149584Genetic association of TNFRSF1A variant with multiple sclerosis, odds ratio is 1.6
rs6498169CLEC16A variant, is associated with autoimmune diseases, particularly multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes.
rs9282641CD86 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
rs2283792An additional locus of interest in multiple sclerosis.
rs3194051Alteration of the interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R) alpha chain influences the risk of multiple sclerosis.
rs6680578A variant of the ecotropic viral integration 5 (EVI5) gene is associated with multiple sclerosis.
rs17066096A rare coding variant of the IL22RA2 signalling peptide is associated with multiple sclerosis risk.
rs17174870A polymorphism in the MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase gene is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis.
rs703842A gene associated with vitamin D, serum vitamin D concentration and risk of multiple sclerosis.
rs7592330
rs7789940
rs744166
rs354033
rs180515
rs2546890
rs228614
rs233100
rs874628
rs12212193
rs12368653
rs6718520
rs669607
rs6896969
rs9891119
rs12466022
rs2119704
rs4285028
rs4648356
rs908821
rs3780792
rs2040406
rs1335532
rs11581062
rs11962089
rs3129889
rs290986
rs10466829
rs2744148
rs12487066
rs7577363
rs7536563
rs12044852
rs11164838
rs10735781
rs4763655
rs10975200
rs4959039
rs9657904
rs10201872
rs1386330
rs1557351
rs17157903
rs12047808
rs2842483
rs3913163
rs77360604
rs13115869
rs2200997
rs10519631
rs1364920
rs2636670
rs2636683
rs336408
rs2172023
rs79442729
rs1992418
rs12504681
rs7295402
rs2216228
rs10841979
rs2268858
rs2300726
rs10459079
rs2418058
rs12817074
rs2728827
rs2268861
rs4762899
rs2300731
rs7964012
rs704219
rs6993386
rs3129934
rs140915863
rs201921967
rs765866317
rs870849
rs2041670
rs11117432
rs929230
rs12722561
rs3807306
rs2155219
rs9275572
rs3130058
rs3853601
rs2239709
rs3093976
rs3093948
rs2516393
rs2734583
rs660895
rs35445101
rs2303759
rs4613763
rs6984045
rs2243123
rs2019960
rs2920001
rs1841770
rs7238078
rs13192841
rs10411936
rs771767
rs17090640
rs1821625
rs12513380
rs3761959
rs2425752
rs4410871
rs170934
rs8070463
rs9292777
rs882300
rs7595037
rs3135338
rs2300603
rs2293152
rs4939490
rs17824933
rs11154801
rs7255066
rs806321
rs13333054
rs6952809
rs12048904
rs11810217
rs650258
rs2248359
rs2523393
rs2293370
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