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DNA oxidation

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Cancer may be linked to oxidative damage of DNA from various chemical and physical agents, but recent findings suggest that even endogenous generation of oxidants like hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite can lead to the oxidation of DNA. This means cancer could occur in individuals without any known exposure to carcinogenic substances. In this discussion, we will address how these two types of oxidants are produced within living organisms as well as their unique reactions with DNA resulting in the formation 8-oxo-dG products. We'll place particular emphasis on highlighting each oxidant's individual characteristics concerning its generation mechanism and reactivity with genetic material.

Multiple protective mechanisms have evolved in cells to prevent the deleterious effects of DNA oxidation, as it is prone to oxidative attack. While base excision repair serves as the major mechanism for repairing DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species, recent evidence suggests that nucleotide excision repair proteins - which are often mutated in human syndromes - also play a role. This review will focus on direct oxidation of DNA and utilize oxidized base 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxyguanine as its prototype example. Studies using model mice indicate that ablation of two gene functions mostly leads to accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and subsequent mutagenesis or cancer development. Recent identification of mutations in oxidative damage repair leading to human diseases suggests defects within this pathway may increase cancer risk; however their primary causative role seems more associated with neurological disease instead.

Follow the link of the selected polymorphism to read a brief description of how the selected polymorphism affects Oxidative stress and see a list of existing studies.

SNP polymorphisms related to the topic Oxidative stress:

rs662Antioxidant defence enzyme gene breakdown.
rs4880Polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes as risk factors for complications, leads to increased oxidative stress. Affects the level of selenium in serum.
rs10517A break in the oxidative stress gene, increases the risk of developing asthma.
rs1041740A break in the gene that is responsible for the effects of oxidative stress in pregnant women on fetal development.
rs1800566Antioxidant defence enzyme gene: possible role in protection against carcinogenesis and toxicity by dietary antioxidant intake.
rs2297518A genetic polymorphism in the nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with oxidative stress.
rs2551715A gene responsible for oxidative stress and increased susceptibility to breast cancer.
rs4135168A break in the gene that is responsible for the effects of oxidative stress in pregnant women on fetal development.