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Genetic test for gluten intolerance

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Gluten sensitivity or intolerance is an immune response to the protein gluten, which is present in wheat, barley, and rye. This autoimmune condition affects a considerable portion of the population in different countries and is also known as non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Common symptoms of gluten sensitivity include bloating, constipation, diarrhea, foul-smelling feces, and abdominal pain. These symptoms can manifest within two hours of consuming gluten-rich foods.

Hereditary gluten sensitivity can be inherited across generations and observed in siblings or cousins within the same family. The presence of a single copy of the gluten intolerance gene is inherited from each parent, and the manifestation of symptoms depends on the specific copy of the gene. Upon exposure to gluten, individuals may experience a trigger that activates their DNA. Those with severe symptoms are advised to avoid gluten, as it can damage the lining of the small intestine and hinder nutrient absorption. For these individuals, dietary changes such as eliminating gluten-based foods can alleviate the issue.

The production of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins, which regulate the immune system, involves the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) gene system. These proteins are present on the surfaces of cells.

HLA-DQ2 (specifically HLA-DQ2.2 and HLA-DQ2.5) and HLA-DQ8 are two categories of the HLA gene that are associated with an increased likelihood of gluten intolerance.

Gluten intolerance has been associated with four variations of the HLA gene, namely HLA DQ, HLA DQ 2.5, HLA DQ 2.2 (which has three sub-types), and HLA DQ7.

A study was carried out to evaluate the genetic influence on gluten intolerance. It was observed that almost all patients diagnosed with celiac disease had the risk allele in the HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 genes, while individuals without celiac disease did not possess the same allele. Another study was conducted to analyze the HLA gene types, which revealed that people with the C allele in HLA DQ8, T allele in HLA DQ 2.5, and the T, C, and A alleles in different subtypes of HLA DQ 2.2 (M1, M2, and M3 respectively), as well as the A allele in HLA DQ7, had a higher likelihood of reacting to gluten in their diets.

If you possess the DQ2.5 or DQ8 variant, it may be advisable to follow a gluten-free diet, regardless of whether you have experienced symptoms of celiac disease. This approach can prevent the potential development of HLA DQ-gliadin complexes, which are known to cause inflammation.

Follow the link of the selected polymorphism to read a brief description of how the selected polymorphism affects Gluten-free diet and see a list of existing studies.

SNP polymorphisms related to the topic Gluten-free diet:

rs2858331Together with the rs4988889 gene breakage, it is a diagnostic criterion for celiac disease.
rs2187668Risk of autoimmune diseases (lupus, gluten disease).
rs6441961Increased risk of gluten disease.
rs2395182HLA DQ2.2 genes play an important role in many autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and others.
rs7775228HLA DQ2.2 genes play an important role in many autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and others.
rs4713586HLA DQ2.2 genes play an important role in many autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and others.
rs2816316Genetic variant risk for type 1 diabetes and gluten disease.
rs9851967Genetic risk of celiac disease associated with immune response.
rs6822844Combined with the rs13119723 breakage, the study showed the strongest association with celiac disease among Caucasian patients.
rs3184504A variant of celiac disease genetic risk associated with immune response. Also carrier associated type 1 diabetes.
rs4994A beta-3-adrenergic receptor mutation is associated with visceral obesity but lowers serum triglyceride levels. Carriers of the G allele necessarily need strength training to lose weight and keep the body in good shape.
rs231775
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